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Rwanda1973: Kudeta Yabuze Kibara


Dr. Christine Uwimana yamenyeye se mu rukurikirane rw'ibiganiro vyakozwe n'Ijwi ry'Amerika

Inkuru y’umugore waje kumenya ibyerekeye ababyeyi bamubyara byaratinze, abo bakaba bari mu bantu 56 bishwe mu gihe cy’amateka mabi. Ibyatahuwe mu biganiro by’uruhererekane bya serivisi y’Ikirundi n’Ikinyarwanda y’Ijwi ry’Amerika.

Godefroid Nyilibakwe
Godefroid Nyilibakwe

Mu gihe cy’imyaka ibarirwa muri mirongo, Christine Uwimana ntiyabashaga kuzuza icyangombwa na kimwe gikenera amazina ya se umubyara. Ahagenewe iryo zina yarahihoreraga, bigaragaza icyeragati yarimo, cyangwa se akuzuzamo ngo “ntazwi”.

Nta na byinshi yashoboraga kumenya kuri nyina umubyara yabuze akiri uruhinja mu Rwanda, uretse amazina ye gusa. Ubu, ku myaka 48 y’amavuko, Uwimana ashobora noneho gutanga izina rya se umubyara, Godefroid Nyiribakwe. Si ibyo gusa, yanasobanukiwe byinshi kuri nyina umubyara, Anyesi Kabarenzi.

Uyu muganga w’inzobere mu buvuzi bw’indwara zo mu mutwe ukorera i Lausanne mu Busuwisi mu magambo ye, umwirondoro wuzuye w’inkomoko ye ni “impamyabumenyi ihebuje izindi zose yigeze abona.”

Ababyeyi b’umubiri ba Uwimana bombi baguye mu buroko nyuma y’ihirikwa ry’ubutegetsi ryo mu w’1973 mu Rwanda. Amakuru atatanye ku byerekeye ubuzima bwabo n’uko bapfuye yaje gutahurwa mu biganiro by’uruhererekana serivisi y’Ikirundi n’Ikinyarwanda y’Ijwi ry’Amerika yakoze ku migendekere y’iryo hirikwa ry’ubutegetsi ndetse n’uguceceka gukabije ku birebana n’abaritakarijemo ubuzima.

Nibura abagera kuri 56 bivugwa ko bishwe mu bihe byakurikiye iyo kudeta, nk’uko bikubiye muri raporo y’umuryango Amnesty International. Uwo mubare kandi wanemejwe n’umutegetsi wari ushinzwe kumenyesha imiryango yabo nyuma y’aho urukiko rutegetse leta gutanga impozamarira mu mafaranga kubera iyicwa ryabo.

Nyamara igikorwa nk’icyo cyarindiriye umwaka wa 1985 kugira ngo kibeho. Hagati aho, imiryango ya ba nyakwigendera yaciwe mu murwa mukuru, Kigali, baguma aho nta gakuru ku babo mbese bari mu gihirahiro imyaka myinshi. Wasangaga abantu batewe ubwoba cyane no kuba banaganira ku ibura ry’abo ku mugaragaro.

Abenshi mu bafunzwe inyuma ya kudeta yo mu 1973, bavanywe mu mabohero y'i kigali batwarwa mu yari i Gisenyi na Ruhengeri.
Abenshi mu bafunzwe inyuma ya kudeta yo mu 1973, bavanywe mu mabohero y'i kigali batwarwa mu yari i Gisenyi na Ruhengeri.

Ikiganiro cyiswe “Rwanda 1973- Inkuru yabuze kibara” cyabashije kumenera muri uko guceceka kuva hagati mu mwaka ushize, mu biganiro 22 by’isaha buri kimwe byatambutswaga buri cyumweru kuva ku itariki ya 2 y’ukwezi kwa 8 kugeza ku ya 27 y’ukwa 12. Urwo ruhererekane rw’ibiganiro mu rurimi rw’Ikinyarwanda rwasubiyemo ibyo bihe byose kuva ku itariki ya 5 y’ukwa 7, ubwo Jenerali Yuvenali Habyarimana yafataga ubutegetsi abwambuye perezida wa mbere watowe ari we Grégoire Kayibanda.

Habyarimana wo mu bwoko bw’Abahutu ukomoka mu gice cy’amajyaruguru y’u Rwanda, yabanje gutegeka igihugu mu buryo bwa gisirikare, hanyuma kuva muw’1978 aba perezida kugeza ubwo indege ye irasiwe muri Mata 1994, igikorwa gifatwa na benshi nk’imbarutso y’ibitero bya jenoside ku bo mu bwoko bw’abatutsi n’abari babashyigikiye.

Nyuma yo gukorerwa kudeta, Kayibanda yarafashwe arafungwa, hamwe n’abandi babarirwa muri mirongo, biganjemo abanyapolitiki ndetse n’abasirikare bakuru. Uruhererekane rw’ibiganiro by’Ijwi ry’Amerika rwashoboye nibura gutahura ibyerekeye urupfu rw’abagabo 55 n’umugore umwe. Abagera kuri 15 baba barishwe barashwe mu mezi make yakurikiye kudeta. Abandi nibura batanu bagiye bicirwa mu bikorwa byitirirwaga kubimurira mu yandi magereza byakorwaga mu gihe cy’ijoro.

Ni mu gihe 20 basigaye-bamwe muri bo bashoboye kumara imyaka igera kuri 3 mbere yo gupfa bicishijwe inzara. Abapfakazi n’imfubyi basizwe na ba nyakwigendera bagaragarije akababaro kabo uwayoboraga ikiganiro ku Ijwi ry’Amerika akaba n’umushakashatsi ari we Venuste Nshimiyimana. Yashoboye kuganira n’umugabo umwe rukumbi warokotse ubwo bwicanyi, ndetse n’abandi bantu babarirwa muri mirongo bafite amakuru afatika ku byabaye, abo barimo abahoze ari abasirikare bakuru ndetse n’abakoraga mu rwego rw’ubucamanza ubwo ibyo byabaga.

Yanasabye abakurikira ikiganiro kubaza ibibazo, byanaba ngombwa bagatanga inyunganizi, harimo no kuba batanga amakuru yerekeranye n’aho imibiri ya ba nyakwigendera yaba yaragiye itabwa. Ku bwa James Gasana, umushakashatsi mu bijyanye n’amateka wakurikiranye ibi biganiro, imisanzu yabo muri iki kiganiro yatanze umucyo kuri iki gice cy’amateka y’u Rwanda, ibyo bikaba bitanga urufunguzo ku biganiro n’ubushakashatsi byisumbuyeho.

Gasana, w’imyaka 70 y’amavuko wananditse igitabo ku bihe byakurikiye biganisha no mu gihe yari Minisitiri muri Guverinoma mu ntangiriro ya za 90 avuga ko “abantu benshi bari bazi iby’ubu bwicanyi”. Akavuga ko bitewe n’uko byinshi mu byaha byagiye biba ntihagire abemera ko byakozwe n’ababikoze ntibabiryozwe, “ibyo byateye igikomere kinini mu muryango nyarwanda”

Aganira n’Ijwi ry’Amerika iwe mu Busuwisi, Gasana yagize ati: "Ubutabera budatanzwe, ni ikibazo gikomeye cyane."

Agnes Kabarenzi (i Bubamfu) n'umukobwa wiwe Dr. Christine Uwimana.
Agnes Kabarenzi (i Bubamfu) n'umukobwa wiwe Dr. Christine Uwimana.

Ikiganiro cyo ku itariki 4 y’ukwa 10 umunyamakuru Venuste Nshimiyimana yakigeneye Kabarenzi, umwe mu bagore babiri bari imfungwa muri icyo gihe. Ubwo yafatwaga mu ntangiriro z’ukwa 7, 1973, yari afite imyaka 24, akora nk’umusosiyale mu bitaro bikuru bya Kigali. Impamvu yatawe muri yombi ntiyamenyekanye, n'ubwo bishobora kuba byaraturutse ku isano yari hagati ye na Godefroid Nyiribakwe, umugabo wa mukuru we wakoraga muri Minisiteri y’abakozi ba leta mu gihe cy’ubutegetsi bwa Kayibanda.

Nyuma y’amezi atandatu atawe muri yombi akoherezwa muri gereza ya Kigali, yaje kubyara umwana w’umukobwa abyariye ku bitaro yahoze akorera. Yirinze kuvuga amazina ya se. Nyuma y’icyumweru kimwe, Kabarenzi yaje kwamburwa wa mwana ahabwa undi mubyeyi ngo amurere.

Ukwezi kwakurikiyeho, mu kwa kabiri kw’1974, imfungwa za kudeta zimuriwe muri gereza ya Gisenyi n’iya Ruhengeri. Kabarenzi yari umwe mu barenga 20 bajyanywe mu ya Ruhengeri, ahazwi nka Musanze kuri ubu, hafatwa nk’umujyi mukuru w’intara y’Amajyaruguru.

Aho mu Ruhengeri, imfungwa za kudeta zarakubitwaga ndetse zigakorerwa iyicarubozo hifashishijwe amashanyarazi, nk’uko abagabo babiri bandi bahafungiwe muri icyo gihe babibwiye Ijwi ry’Amerika. Nyuma, igihe kimwe mu kwa 9 kw’1976, zitangira imyigaragambyo yo kwiyicisha inzara nk’uburyo bwo kwamagana uko zari zifashwe.

Abo batangabuhamya babwiye Ijwi ry’Amerika ko nyuma y’iminsi mike imfungwa zagerageje guhagarika uko kwiyicisha inzara, ariko abategetsi ba gereza bazima ibiryo.

Bavuga ko imfungwa, zitashoboraga kurebana mu twumba buri umwe yabaga afungiyemo, zatangiye gusenga ziranguruye amajwi no kuririmbira hamwe zihanitse nk’uburyo bwo guterana akanyabugabo muri ibyo bihe bikomeye. Nyamara uko inzara yagendaga irushaho kuzirembya, amajwi na yo yagendaga arembera. Uwa mbere muri bo yapfuye ku munsi wa 34. Uwanyuma, ari we Anyesi Kabarenzi, yashizemo umwuka ku munsi wa 52.

Umukobwa we, Uwimana yabwiye Ijwi ry’Amerika kuri telephone ati: ”Sinari nzi ko yishwe urubozo cyangwa yafashwe nabi bene ako kageni… Sinamenye ko yabaye muri uko kuzimu indi myaka 3 nyuma y’aho mvukiye.”

Mu by’ukuri, Uwimana yari azi bike cyane ku byerekeranye na nyina. Icyakora icukumbura ry’umunyamakuru Nshimiyimana w’Ijwi ry’Amerika ibyo ryaje kubihindura.

Ubwo yashakishaga ibyerekeye Kabarenzi, umunyamakuru yaje kumenya ko hari umwana w’umukobwa yasize, hanyuma yiyemeza gukurikirana ngo amenye aho yaba aherereye n’uko byaba byaramugendekeye. Akorera iwe mu rugo i Londres, yakurikiranye inzira yaje kumuganisha ku kubona Christine Uwimana yarakuze aba mu Busuwisi. Icyo gihe hari mu mpera z’ukwa cyenda, ndetse Uwimana yari yaratangiye gukurikira ibiganiro yakoraga.

Yatekerereje Nshimiyimana uburyo yakuriye i Gitarama, umujyi uri rwagati mu Rwanda ubu hazwi nk’i Muhanga. Umubyeyi Anastaziya Nyirahabimana yamuhaye urukundo rwa kibyeyi, hamwe n’umugabo we, ndetse n’uwo afata nka murumuna we ubu uba mu Bubiligi.

Avuga kuri uwo mubyeyi wamureze, Uwimana yagize ati: "Ni intwari-umuntu w’agatangaza, w’urukundo rwinshi.”

Abo babyeyi bombi barapfuye, ariko Uwimana n’umuvandimwe we bagumye gukundana. Bernadette Tuyishime yabwiye Ijwi ry’Amerika ati: ”Nakuze nzi ko Christine ari mukuru wanjye kandi na n’ubu ndacyabyizera uko.”

Umuryango wateye Uwimana akanyabugabo mu myigire ye, ndetse aza gukurikirana ibijyanye n’ubuvuzi bw’indwara zo mu mutwe mu Rwanda. Yaje kujya mu Busuwisi muw’2006 gukomerezayo amasomo kuri Kaminuza ya Geneva, nyuma aza gukora mu bitaro bitandukanye by’aho, kuva mu myaka myinshi ishize, ubu ni umuganga wigenga ukorera mu mujyi wa Lausanne.

Uko imyaka yagendaga ishira, Uwimana yarushagaho kumva anyotewe no kumenya ibyerekeye ababyeyi bamubyara. Muw’1985, akiri umwangavu, yaje kumenya bike ku byerekeranye na nyina Kabarenzi, birimo n’amakuru ko yapfuye. Ati: ”Namenye gusa amazina ye. Nari narabonye n’ifoto. Numvaga banavuga ko yari umuhanga, umunyabuntu. Ibyo gusa.”

Naho ku byerekeye se byo, yari afite ibitekerezo bitatu: Fiyanse utazwi amazina, umukunzi utaramenyekanye cyangwa se umukozi wihariye wa leta. Yanagerageje gusaba ufitanye amasano n’uwo mukozi wa leta yakekaga, ko bakoresha ibizamini by’uturemangingo-sano, ariko arabyangirwa.

Uko gukeka Uwimana yaje kugusangiza umunyamakuru Nshimiyimana, wari waratangiye kubikoraho ubushakashatsi. Umunyamakuru yashoboye gusaba uwo muntu, ubu uba mu Bufaransa, ko yakwemera gukoresha ibizamini by’uturemangingo-sano cyangwa se DNA, nk’uko Uwimana yari yarabimusabye. Mu mpera z’ukwa 10, ibizamini byakozwe na laboratwari y’ibitaro byo mu Busuwisi byasohotse bigaragaza ko bombi bahuje. Ko bombi se ubabyara ari umwe, ari we Godefroid Nyiribakwe.

Uwimana, wahindutse nk’izingiro ry’ikiganiro cyo ku ya 6 y’ukwa 12 yabwiye Ijwi ry’Amerika ati: ”Ubu noneho izina rye ndarizi.” Muri icyo kiganiro, ibyavuye muri ibyo bizamini byashyizwe ahagaragara.

Uwimana yashimye Ijwi ry’Amerika ku kuba ryaratanze urubuga “ruvugirwamo ibintu ubundi byafatwaga nk’ikizira.” Ati: ”Mwatumye abantu benshi batobora baravuga. Ku bw’ibyo, mwabashije kunsubiza ababyeyi banjye.”

Albert Bizindori, uyoboye itsinda ry’abana bakomoka ku bishwe mu gihe cya kudeta, yabwiye Ijwi ry’Amerika, ati: “Ibyishimo mwazaniye Christine ni ibyacu twese. Mu myaka 47 yose, bakoze buri kimwe mu rwego rwo kugumisha ababyeyi bacu mu mwijima, bibwira ko bazibagirana. Ariko biturutse ku Ijwi ry’Amerika, ubu abanyarwanda bose bamenye ko bishwe bazize akarengane. Ubu bari mu mateka y’u Rwanda.”

Bizindori yasabye ko abakomoka ku baguye muri kudeta n’ibyayikurikiye ndetse n’ababa bakomoka ku babishe bahurizwa hamwe bakaganira ku kahise- nk’uburyo bwo kuvurana ibikomere, hatagamijwe guhora. Yongeraho ko gushyira hanze ayo mateka “byaganisha ku bumwe n’ubwiyunge nyabwo.”

Abandi bo basabye ko hashyirwaho urwibutso rw’abishwe muri icyo gihe.

Abo barimo Clarisse Kayisire wakurikiranaga ibi biganiro ari i Ottawa muri Kanada, wagize ati: ”Ndasaba leta ko yabubakira urwibutso… ahantu hajya hashyirwa indabo mu rwego rwo kubazirikana.” Uyu yavuye mu Rwanda afite imyaka 24, mbere gato ya Jenoside yo muw’1994 yatwaye ubuzima bwa bamwe mu bagize umuryango we. Yavuze ko ari ngombwa guhangara ukuri kubabaje. Ati: ”Tugomba kubivuga, n'ubwo bwose bitaba byiza.”

Uwimana atekereza ku kuba amakuru y’imenyekana rya se ashobora kudashimisha abavandimwe bahuje amaraso. Gusa agashimangira ko “atagambiriye gukurura ishyari”, ariko yakwishimira kumenya byinshi kuri se Nyiribakwe, nko kumenya aho yavukiye, aho yakuriye n’aho yize.

Hagati aho, Uwimana yashoboye kubona ifoto ya se mu kinyamakuru, arayikata, hanyuma ayomeka ku yandi. Iri hamwe n’ay’umuryango we arimo: ay’abana be batatu yabyaranye n’umugabo we, ab’umugabo we arera batatu, ndetse n’iy’umugabo we, mwarimu Marc Pidoux.

Abana yabyaye-abakobwa babiri n’umuhungu, bari mu kigero cy’imyaka hagati ya 12 na 17, avuga ko “bahoraga bamubaza se wamubyaye uwo ari we. Ati: ”Ubu bashoboye kutwuzuriza igisekuru cy’umuryango. Ni we gice cyaburaga... Ubu amateka yanjye aruzuye.”

Godefroid Nyilibakwe (Ari hagati kw'ifoto) n'umugore wiwe bari ku kibuga c'indege i Kigali.
Godefroid Nyilibakwe (Ari hagati kw'ifoto) n'umugore wiwe bari ku kibuga c'indege i Kigali.

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