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Americana: Uko Bwa Mbere muri Amerika Umwana Yakatiwe Akanyongwa


Icyumba banyongeramo abakatiwe igihano cyo kwicwa

Ku italiki ya 16 y'ukwa gatandatu mu 1944, mu cyiswe "inda yavuyemo nabi cyane mu bucamanza, umwana w'imyaka 14 y'amavuko witwa George Junius Stinney Jr. yaranyonzwe. Ni we muntu muto wa mbere uzwi mu mateka ya Leta zunze ubumwe z'Amerika wakatiwe urwo gupfa kandi koko aricwa.

Mu 1944, George Junius Stinney Jr. yari umwana w'Umwirabura. We n'ababyeyi be n'abandi bavandimwe be bane, abahungu babiri n'abakobwa babiri, bari batuye mu mujyi muto cyane witwa Alcolu, muri leta ya Carolina y'Epfo, mu burasirazuba bw'amajyepfo ya Leta zunze ubumwe z'Amerika.

Umujyi wa Alcolu wari urimo ibice bibiri bidafite aho bihuriye, icy'Abirabura, n'icy'Abazungu. Hagati yabyo hari haciyemo umuhanda wa gari ya moshi. Bamwe bari bafite amashuli, amasoko, amavuriro, insengero, byose byabo bwite. Nta mubano Abazungu bari bafitanye n'Abirabura.

Ku italiki ya 22 y'ukwa gatatu 1944, abana babiri b'abakobwa b'Abazungukazi, Betty June Binnicker na Mary Emma Thames, barazimiye. Betty yari afite imyaka 11 y'amavuko. Mary yari afite irindwi. Bukeye bwaho, abaturage b'Abazungu n'Abirabura, bari baraye bafatanyije babashakisha, babonye imirambo yabo mu gice cy'umujyi wa Alcolu cyari gituwe n'Abirabura. Bari bishwe.

George Stinney Jr. na mukuru we John Stinney, wari ufite imyaka 17, batawe muri yombi. Polisi ni bo yakekagaho kwica Betty na Mary. John yarekuwe vuba, polisi igumana murumuna we George. Baramwimuye, bamujyana kumufungira mu mujyi wa Columbia, muri kilometero 80 uvuye iwabo i Alcolu. Kugera urubanza rwe rurangira, yafungiwe mu kato iminsi 81. Muri iyo minsi yose, ababyeyi be bemerewe kumusura rimwe gusa. Abavandimwe be bo ntibongeye kumuca iryera kuva akimara gufatwa.

Mu gihe George Stinney Jr. yari afunze, no mu gihe abagenzacyaha bamubazaga mu rwego rw'anketi, nta na rimwe bari kumwe n'avoka urukiko rwamuhaye (wari n'umunyapolitiki). Ababyeyi be ntibari bahari. Yari umwana w'Umwirabura wenyine imbere y'abagabo b'Abazungu bagamije kumuca umutwe. Baranamubeshyeye ngo yemeye icyaha. Nyamara abashakashatsi na n'ubu ntibarabona inyandiko ye ibyemeza.

Anketi zimaze kurangira, ibindi byose birebana n'urubanza rwose uko rwakabaye, ni ukuvuga guhitamo abaturage bo gukora Urukiko rwa rubanda-Jury, mw'iburanisha, byose byabaye mu munsi umwe rukumbi.

Jury yose, umucamanza, umushinjacyaha, avoka we, abatangabuhamya bamushinje, bose bari Abazungu gusa. Urubanza rwamaze amasaha abiri. Jury yiherereye iminota icumi yonyine gusa, ihita yemeza ko George Stinney Jr. ari we wishe Betty June Binnicker na Mary Emma Thames, kandi ko akatiwe urwo gupfa. Abantu ku giti cyabo n'imiryango iharanira uburenganzira bwa muntu batakambiye guverineri wa leta ya Corolina y'Epfo ngo amuhe imbabazi nk'iz'umukuru w'igihugu, banashyira imbere cyane cyane ko yari umwana, ariko yarabyanze.

George yanyonzwe ku italiki ya 16 y'ukwa gatandatu 1944 mu ntebe y'amashanyarazi (chaise électrique mu Gifaranza, electric chair mu Cyongereza). Umuryango we warahunze kugirango Abazungu batabica.

Nta mutangabuhamya n'umwe wo gushinjura avoka we yigeze ahamagaza. Avoka nta kibazo na kimwe yigeze abaza abamushinjaga. Ntiyigeze ajuririra urubanza. Abaganga bapimye imirambo ya Betty na Mary bemeza ko aba bana bapfuye kubera kuva amaraso menshi. Nyamara nta maraso abagenzacyaha bigeze babona ku myenda ya George. Nta n'ayo bigeze babona aho imirambo bayisanze.

Abahanga mu by'ubugenzacyaha bavuga ahubwo ko Betty na Mary bashobora kuba bariciwe ahandi, noneho uwabishe (cyangwa ababishe) bazana imirambo yabo mu ijoro mu gice cy'Abirabura cy'umujyi w'Alcolu. Bavuga ko nta mafoto, cyangwa se ibindi bishushanyo by'aho imirambo yabo yabonetse, intwaro, cyangwa se ikindi kimenyetso icyo ari cyo cyose gifatika, abagenzacyaha n'abashinjacyaha bigeze bagaragaza.

Bahereye kuri aya makosa yose bakozeho ubushakashatsi imyaka myinshi, abahanga mu by'amategeko batandukanye ku giti cyabo, bafatanyije n'ishami ryigisha amategeko rya kaminuza yitwa Northeastern University iri mu mujyi wa Boston muri leta ya Massachusetts, mu majyaruguru y'uburasirazuba bwa Leta zunze ubumwe z'Amerika, batanze ikirego mu rukiko mu 2013, basaba ko urubanza rwa George Stinney Jr rusubirwamo. Mu mwaka wakurikiyeho, urukiko rwaciye umwanzuro ko uyu mwana yarenganye.

Icyo gihe, ku italiki ya 18 y'ukwa 12, 2014, ikinyamakuru "The Washington Post" cyabyanditseho, kiti: "Byafashe iminota icumi yonyine gusa yo guhamya icyaha umwana w'imyaka 14 George Stinney Jr. Byafashe imyaka 70 kugirango agirwe umwere."

Ariko yari yarishwe, ntacyamugarura. Kugera mu 2010, Eli Faber yari mwalimu w'amateka mu ishami ry'amategeko mpanabyaha muri kaminuza y'umujyi wa New York, City University of New York, mu burasirazuba bwa Leta zunze ubumwe z'Amerika. Ni we uduha umwanzuro mu gitabo yanditse cyitwa "The Child in the Electric Chair", ni nko kuvuga ngo umwana mu ntebe y'amashanyarazi. Aragira, ati: "Ibya George Stinney Jr. si ikibazo cy'ubucamanza bwo mu gihe cya cyera bwataye umurongo byonyine gusa. Ni ikibazo kikimena amatwi abariho bose muri ibi bihe."

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