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Abatalibani ni Bantu Ki mu Mateka y'Afuganisitani?


Umuvugizi w'Abatalebani avugana n'abanyamakuru mu murwa mukuru Kaboul

Ubusanzwe, ijambo “talibani” risobanuye ngo “umunyeshuri”, cyangwa se umuntu ushakisha ubumenyi. Abatalibani bategetse Afuganisitani kuva muw’1996 kugeza muw’2001 aho bashyizeho ubutegetsi bugendera ku mahame akarishye y’idini ya kiyisilamu azwi nka shariya.

Abatalibani batangiye bate?

Abatalibani bari mu matsinda yarwanaga mu ntambara yashyamiranije abanyagihugu muri Afuganistani mu myaka ya za 1990, nyuma y’aho Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Abasoviyeti ziviriye muri icyo gihugu.

Iryo tsinda ryavutse muw’1994 hafi y’umujyi wa Kandahar, mu majyepfo y’Afuganistani. Uwarishinze yitwaga Mollah Mohammad Omar, wari umukuru cyangwa se Imam w’abayisilamu bo muri uwo mujyi. Uyu ni nawe wakomeje kuribera umuyobozi kugeza aho apfiriye muw’2013.

Abatalibani bahuriye hehe n’Amerika?

Mu ntangiriro, abatalibani binjizaga abarwanyi babakuye mu bahoze ari indwanyi z’abanyafuganistani bo mu mutwe w’aba moudjahidine, bari bashyigikiwe na Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Amerika mu ntambara bahanganagamo n’ingabo z’abasoviyeti mu myaka y’1980.

Abatalibani bafashe ubutegetsi bate?

Nyuma y’igenda ry’ingabo z’Abasoviyeti muw’1989 n’isenyuka rya leta yariho muri Afuganistani ryakurikiyeho, igihugu cyashegeshwe n’intambara yashyamiranyije abanyagihugu. Abatalibani baje gushyigikirwa cyane ubwo bizezaga ko bagiye kugarura ibintu mu buryo no kugarura ubutabera. Muw’1994, babashije kwigarurira umujyi wa Kandahar nta mirwano ikomeye ibaye, hanyuma muw’1996, bigarurira umurwa mukuru Kaboul.

Ingengabitekerezo yabo ni iyihe?

Abatalibani bategeka bagendeye ku mahame akarishye y’idini ya Isilamu-Charia. Mu gihe cy’ubutegetsi bwabo, kwicira abantu mu ruhame no kuhabakubitira byari byiganje. Abagore muri rusange ntibagiraga uburenganzira bwo kujya mu mirimo cyangwa se kwiga, kandi bari bategetswe kwambara umwitandiro uhisha igice cyose cy’isura uzwi nka burqa igihe cyose bari mu ruhame.

Abatalibani baciye ibitabo ndetse na filimi zo mu bihugu burengerazuba bw’isi (Uburayi n’Amerika), ndetse basenya ibintu byose bijyanye n’imico gakondo, harimo ibibumbano binini bya Bouddha byari bimaze imyaka igera ku 1,500 mu kibaya cyo rwagati mu gihugu cya Bamiyan.

Bahuriye hehe na Al Qaida?

Abatalibani baje gucumbikira umutwe w’iterabwoba wa Al-Qaida, wategekwaga icyo gihe n’umunyarabiya Sawudite Oussama Ben Laden, ubu utakiriho. Al-Qaida yashinze ibigo byo gutorezamo abarwanyi muri Afuganistani, ari nabyo yifashishije mu gutegura ibitero by’iterabwoba mu isi yose, harimo ibitero byo kuwa 11 Nzeri 2001 byibasiye Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Amerika.

Batakaje bate ubutegetsi?

Nyuma y’igihe kitageze ku kwezi habaye ibitero byo kuwa 11 Nzeri, Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Amerika n’inshuti zayo bateye Afuganistani hari ku butegetsi bwa George W. Bush. Nyuma yo guhirika abatalibani, Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Amerika yatangiye gukorana n’abanya Afuganistani mu kugarura leta igendera ku mahame ya demukarasi.

Nyuma hakurikiyeho iki?

Nyuma y’aho batsindiwe, abakuru b’abatalibani bahunze bagana mu birindiro byo mu majyepfo no mu burasirazuba bw’Afuganistani abandi bahungira muri Pakistani. Uyu mutwe wakomeje kugaba ibitero kuri leta nshya yari ishyigikiwe na Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Amerika.

Muw’2020, leta y’Amerika yari iyobowe na Donald Trump yagiranye ibiganiro bigamije amasezerano n’abatalibani bari bamaze imyaka irenga 20 mu ntambara muri Afuganistani.

Ayo masezerano yashyiragaho ingengabihe yo gucyura ingabo z’Amerika hanyuma abatalibani nabo bagahagarika ibitero ku banyamerika, bakanatangira kugirana ibiganiro na leta y’Afuganistani. Hagati aho, ibiganiro byamaze amezi hagati y’abatalibani na leta y’Afuganistani ntibyashoboye kugeza ku masezerano y’amahoro.

Ni ibihe bihugu byemeye Abatalibani?

Leta zibarirwa ku ntoki zirimo Pakistani, Emira Ziyunze z’Abarabu n’Arabiya Sawudite ni zo zemeraga ubutegetsi bw’abatalibani ubwo bategekaga kuva muw’1996 kugeza muw’2001.

Ubu nabwo rero ntabwo bizwi neza niba ibihugu byinshi bizemera leta nshya y’abatalibani: icyakora, ministri w’ububanyi n’amahanga w

Amerika, Bwana Antony Blinken, mu kwezi gushize yatangaje ko Afuganistani izashyirwa mu kato niba abatalibani bafashe ubutegetsi ku ngufu kandi bagakora amahano.

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