Ku wa gatanu, Ukwakira 31, 2014 isaha yo mu karere 08:54

Ikiganiro Ku Nyifato Yo Kugira Abantu Abashumba

Mu kiganiro Americana c’uyu musi, turababwira ku nyifato yahitiye mu bice bimwe vyo muri Amerika, yo kugira abantu abashumba.

Inyifato  yo Kugira abantu abashumbaInyifato yo Kugira abantu abashumba
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Inyifato  yo Kugira abantu abashumba
Inyifato yo Kugira abantu abashumba
Kugira umuntu umushumba, n’ukumugaba hamwe no kumukoresha ibikorwa ushatse. Abahinga mu vyerekeye kahise, bavuga ko kugira abantu abashumba vyatanguye, igihe ibikorwa vyo kurima bitereye imbere, mu myaka igihumbi iheze.

Abantu barategetse imbohe zo mu ngwano gukora ibikorwa vy’agahato. Abandi  bashumba nabo, n’abantu bari bakoze ivyaha, canke abantu batashobora kuriha amafaranga baheranye.

 Umushumba wa mbere nk’uko bivugwa muri kahise, yatanguye kubaho mu myaka ibihumbi bitanu iheze mu banyagihugu bitwa Sumerian bo mu gihugu ca Iraki co mur’iki gihe. Abashumba barabayeho kandi mu banyagihugu bo mu Bushinois, mu Buhindi no muri Afrika, mu bihugu vyo mu buseruko bwo hagati hamwe no mu bihugu vyo muri za Amerika zose.

Kugira abantu abashumba vyagiye biriyongera, uko iterambere mu vyerekeye ubudandanji n’amahinguriro vyagiye biratera imbere.
Ivyo vyaciye bituma abakozi bimbura ibintu vyo gushora, bakenerwa cane. Abashumba nibo bakora ibikorwa nka vyose.

Mu bisgara vyinshi, abashumba barashobora kurekurwa n’abantu b’abatunze, maze bagashobora guhinduka abanyagihugu basanzwe.

Mu nyuma,  abashumba bahavuye bahinduka abakozi, bimbura kandi bakora ibidandazwa bishorwa mu mahanga. Bimwe mur’ivyo vyimbura, yari isukari.

AbaTalinano bari bafise imirima myinshi y’imisigati kuva mu ntango zo mu kinjana ca 20. Barakoresheje abashumba bava mu gihugu c’Uburusiya hamwe no mu bindi bice vy’ibulaya, kugira ngo bimbure isukari.

Hageze mu myaka yo mu 1300, abanyaAfrika b’abirabure baciye basubirira abaRusiya.

Abashumba, baguriwe kandi bafatiwe mu Barabu bo muri Afrika yo mu buraruko, bari basanzwe babakoresha nk’abashumba mu gihe c’imyaka n’imyaka.

Mu myaka y’1400, igihugu  ca Espagne hamwe n’igihugu ca Portugal vyari bifise intara zo muri Amerika vyakolonije: AbanyaBulaya baciye bategeka abanyagihugu bo muri Amerika bakavukire bita Indiens gukora mu milima minini hamwe no mu bikorwa vyo kwimba ubutare mur’izo ntara zo muri amerika bari barakolonije.

Benshi mur’abo banyagihugu bakavukire b’abaIndien barishwe n’ingwara z’ibulaya hamwe n’ugufatwa nabi. Igihugu ca Espagne hamwe n’igihuugu ca Portugal vyaciye bizana abanyagihugu bo muri Afrika yo mu buraruka, vyakoresheje nk’abashumba.

Igihugu c’Ubufaransa, Ubwongereza hamwe n’UbuHollande vyaciye navyo nyene bikoresha abanyaAfrika nk’abashumba, mu ntara zo muri Amerika vyari bikolonije.
Intara  zo muri amerika, zari zikolonijwe n’igihugu c’Ubwongereza, zatunganije ubutunzi butari gushobora kubandanya, hatabonetse abashumba.

Benshi mur’abo bashumba, baba hafi y’iyo mirima nyene. Iyo mirima yimbura ivyimburwa bihambaye cane, birimwo ipampa hamwe n’itabi.

Imiryango y’abashumba mu bisanzwe yaba mu nzu nini, iri hafi y’uruzi. Hariho kandi n’inzu y’ibitungwa hamwe n’inyubakwa yo gushinguramwo ivyimburwa.

Kur’urwo ruzi , haba hariho ikibanza cakoreshwa mu kurungika ibidandazwa mu Bwongereza.

Umuntu yagaba iyo mirima niwe yatanga amategeko kandi niwe yakora ibishobotse vyose kugira ngo iyo mirima yunguke. Niwe yagaburira akongera akambika abantu baba mur’iyo mirima, barimwo abashumba.

Imilima minini yaba irimwo nk’abashumba bashika amajana abiri. Bakora mu mirima yimbura ibifungura biribwa canke bigurishwa ku bantu baba mur’ayo matongo. Kur’ayo matongo kandi haratungirwa ibitungwa kugira baronke inyama hamwe n’amata.

Abashumba bakora mu mirima, bakora akazi kagoye  cane kandi bakora amasaha menshi. Batangura gukora kuva izuba rirashe, bagatahuka rirenze. Benshi mur’abo bashumba baba mu bukene ntangere, mu tuzu dutoduto, tutagiramwo intebe hamwe n’ ubuhinga bwo gushusha no mu bihe vy’imbeho. Kenshi na kenshi, wasanga abantu 10 canke barenga baba mu cumba kimwe.

Abashumba baba kwa bashebuja, bagaba amatongo.
Barateka bakongera bagakubura mu mazu,  kandi bakora amasaha makeyi umuntu agereranije n’abashumba bakora mu mirima, yamara bacungererwa hafi na basebuja hamwe n’umuryango wiwe.

Amategeteko yo mu bumanuko bwo muri reta zunze ubumwe za amerika, yarabuza abashumba kurongora, gutunga  ivyabo hamwe no kuronka umwidegemvyo. Ayo mategeko yarabuza kandi abashumba kuja mw’ishuli hamwe n’ukwiga gusoma. Yamara bamwe mu bantu bari batunze abo bashumba, barabaretse bararonka umwidegemvyo, bongera barabaha amafarang ku bikorwa vyiza baba bakoze.
 
Abandi bantu bari batunze abashumba, babanza kubahana mu kuibakoresha. Mu bihano babaha, harimwo gukubitwa ibimoko, kubima ibifungurwa hamwe no kubagabisha ko bashobora kugurisha imiryango yabo. Bamwe mu bantu bari batunze ayo matongo, barica abashumba bagirijwe ivyaha bikomeye, babamanitse, canke babaturiye.

Mur’iyi myaka tugezemwo, amakungu yose ariyamiriza inyifato yo kugira abantu abashumba: Uko siko vyari bimeze mu myaka ya mbere ya reta zunze ubumwe za amerika. Abanyamerika benshi baremera ko kugira abanu abashumba, cari ikibi kibishe, yamara bakavuga ko vyari bikenewe, ku buryo abantu bose bifise bari bafise abashumba mu  ntango zo mu mwaka w’1700.

Mu myaka yo mu 1750, abantu bangana n’ibice 25% vy’abanyagihugu baba mu ntara zikolonijwe za amerika, bar’abirabure b’abashumba. Kuva mu myaka y’1500 gushika mu myaka y’1800, abanyabulaya barungitse abirabure b’abashumba muri Amerika imiliyoni 12, bavanywe muri Afrika. Abashika imiliyoni zibiri muribo, bapfiriye mu bwato bwari bubajanye muri amerika.

Abantu bandika ivyabaye muri kahise, bavuga kw’ubwato bw’abongereza, aribwo bwatwaye abanyaAfrika benshi b’abashumba,. Umudereva umwe w’ubwato bumwe bwari butwaye abashumba, yahavuye yanka igikorwa yariko arakora, maze aca yihebera idini. Uyo munyamerika yitwa  John Newton. Yaciye aheba uruhara yar’afise rwo gutwara abashumba badandajwe, aca aba umurongozi muri Ekleziya y’abaAnglican. Arazwi cane ku ruririmbo yanditse rwabaye kirangiranwa, rwitwa, “Amazing Grace”
Ikiganiro AMericana
Ikiganiro AMericanai
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