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Umuhanga John Galbraith Yaratabarutse

  • Frederic Nkundikije

...John Kenneth Galbraith yaranguye igikorwa co gushakashaka ku ruruhara rwaranguwe n’abafasoni mu vyerekeye guteza imbere ubutunzi, yitavye umuremyi kw’igenekerezo rya 29 z’ukwezi kwa kane, mu gisagara ca Cambridge mu ntara ya Massachussetts muri reta zunze ubumwe za amerika. Galbraith yakoze igikorwa kirangiranwa mu guha abanyamerika bo mur’iki gihe hamwe n’abanyamerika bo muri kahise inyigisho n’ubumenyi mu vy’ubutunzi, yapfuye afise imyaka 97.

Galbraith yarigishije muri kaminuza Havard University i Cambridge mu ntara ya Massachussetts hagati yo mu mwaka w’1934 hamwe no mu mwaka w’1975. Yamaze igihe kinini co mu buzima bwiwe bw’umukozi, yigisha muri kaminuza yongera akorera reta ya amerika. Mu gihe c’ingwano y’isi yose igira kabiri, yar’umutegetsi muri reta, ajejwe imishashahara hamwe no gukwirikirana ibiciro vy’ibidandazwa.

Galbraith yarabaye kandi ambassaderi aserukira reta zunze ubumwe za amerika mu gihugu c’Ubuhindi, ku ntwaro ya president John F. Kenneth, yafashije cane mu kumuha impanuro zerekeye imigambi ijanye n’ubutunzi.

Richard Parker, umwigisha muri kaminuza Harvard University, akaba kandi yaranditse ku buzima bwa John Kenneth Galbraith, avuga ko yagize uruhara ruhambaye mu kwandika ibitabu birimwo inyigisho zivuga ku buryo bwo guteza imbere ubutunzi. Mur’izo nyigisho, harimwo inyigisho za mbere zerekeye ubutunzi, yatanze kuri kaminuza Harvard University mu mwaka w’1952 .

Richar Parker avuga kandi ko Galbraith yavuga ko, ukuntu ubutunzi bwanagurwa kera, bitandukanye n’ukuntu ubutunzi bunagurwa mu bihugu biriko biratera imbere. Galbraith yavuga kw’ibidandazwa hamwe n’akazi, bitidegemvya mu bihugu, ngo arinaco gituma bitashobora kujana n’ibiciro, nk’uko bimeze mu bihugu bikize.

Rather Parker avuga ko Galbraith yabona kw’indero n’inyigisho, cane cane vy’abigeme hamwe n’abafasoni, ari inkingi y’iterambere. Ukuntu yabona inyigisho zijanye n’ubutunzi, kwahavuye kwemerwa n’abatari bake.

Galbraith yaremera cane kandi kw’uruhara rwa reta, rushobora gufasha cane abanyagihugu badatunze, mu gihe reta igabanije amatagisi hamwe no mu gihe itunganije neza ibice vy’amarafaranga y’ikori bitngishwa ku bidandazwa, mu gihe cose bikenewe.

Galbraith yar’umwanditsi yakundwa cane, yanditse ibitabo birenga 30: Vyinshi mur’ivyo bitabo, vyaranebaguye capitalism ya reta zunze ubumwe za amerika, ngo kuko ikoresha amasoko, mu gushika ku mugambi wazo. Kimwe mu bitabo vyiwe vyaguzwe cane, citwa : “ The Affluent Society , yanditse mu 1958. Ico gitabo cavuga kw’umwimbu umurengera wo mu bihugu bikize, watumye amasoko aronka ibidandazwa vy’umurengera ataco bimaze, maze ivyo biraheza vyononera ibidandazwa kama.

Yamara incabwenge zishigikiye ivyakera, zivuga kw’ivyiyumviro vya Galbraith vyataye igihe mur’iki gihe amakungu yose akorera hamwe mu vyerekeye ubutunzi. Bavuga kandi kw’ubutunzi bwifashe neza mur’iki gihe kubera ubwigenge mu vyereke amasoko: Ngo ivyo bikaba vyerekana kw’ivyiyumviro vy’umushingantahe Galbraith bishaje.

Umwanditsi akomeye mu kinyamakuru The Washington Post George Will, yandika avuga ko Galbraith yihenze mu kwandika kw’umunyamerika muri rusangi ashobora guhendwa kandi akeneye imfashanyo ya reta kugira ngo ashobore kubaho.
Iyindi ncabwenge ishigikiye ivyakera, William F. Buckley yanditse agira ati:

“ N’ikintu ciza ko Galbraith yavutse afise ingabirano y’umwanditsi. Ati ikibi n’uko atakoresheje iyo ngabirano mu bundi buryo, aho kwishinga kuguma agerageza gushigikira ivyiyumviro vyiwe vyariko birata igihe."

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